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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia

By: Nina Crystah A5JGauuaa
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This institution was founded at Berlin by Dr. Israel Hildesheimer for the training of Orthodox rabbis. In accepting the call as rabbi of the Berlin Orthodox party in 1869 he stipulated that he be allowed to continue his activities as rabbinical teacher just as he had done at his former rabbinical office in Eisenstadt, Hungary. After delivering lectures which attracted a great many pupils, he addressed ten prominent persons in different parts of Germany in 1872, and explained to them the necessity of organizing an Orthodox rabbinical seminary at Berlin. These men at once took up the subject, and a central committee was formed, which included Oberrath J. Altmann of Carlsruhe, Rabbi Dr. Auerbach of Halberstadt, Chief Rabbi Dr. Solomon Cohn of Schwerin, A. H. Heymann (a banker) of Berlin, Gustav Hirsch of Berlin, Sally Lewisohn of Hamburg, and Emanuel Schwarzschild of Frankfort-on-the-Main. The seminary was dedicated on Oct. 22, 1873. At the opening of the institution the faculty included the rector, Dr. Israel Hildesheimer, and two lecturers, Dr. David Hoffmann (for the Talmud, ritual codices, and Pentateuch exegesis) and Dr. A. Berliner (for post-Talmudic history, history of literature, and auxiliary sciences). In 1874 Dr. Jacob Barth, subsequently son-in-law of Hildesheimer, was added to the faculty as lecturer in Hebrew, exegesis of the Bible with the exception of the Pentateuch, and religious philosophy. Dr. Hirsch Hildesheimer, son of the founder and a graduate of the seminary, was appointed in 1882 lecturer in Jewish history and the geography of Palestine. When Dr. Solomon Cohn removed to Berlin from Schwerin in 1876 he took charge of the courses in theoretic and practical homiletics, continuing them until he went to Breslau in 1894. By this time the attendance had greatly increased, and owing to the large number of pupilsat the institution it became necessary to employ a new teacher; accordingly in 1895 Dr. J. Wohlgemuth, a former pupil, was appointed. After the death of the founder, Dr. Hildesheimer, June 12, 1899, Dr. D. Hoffmann, the lecturer, was elected rector of the institution.

The seminary is divided into an upper and a lower division. Pupils in the lower division follow a two years' course, being promoted to the upper division on passing an examination; but pupils who have qualified in the principal branches are immediately admitted to the upper division. The course in this division is one of four years. The conditions for admission to the seminary include, besides a blameless religious life, the following: (1) the candidate must prove by examination that he is able to understand a moderately difficult Talmudic text, Rashi, and the Tosafot; (2) as regards the secular sciences he must either have a certificate of graduation from a classical gymnasium or be able to show that he is fitted for the graduating class of such a gymnasium. At the end of the course, pupils who leave the institution as qualified rabbis must pass special examinations showing that aside from their attainments in the various branches of Jewish science they are sufficiently familiar with the ritual codices to decide correctly ritual and religio-legal questions.

The tech alternatives aren't offered to every immigrant who is caught, he said. ICE decides on a case-by-case basis using factors like immigration and criminal history in the consideration. ICE didn't have details on how long the approval process can take. The spokesman also didn't clarify why families in the last five weeks weren't granted alternatives to detention.

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ICE said it considers family ties as part of its approval. As of the end of 2016, 50,825 people were approved directly at border processing sites in California, Arizona and Texas.

That quick process hasn't been the case for thousands of families separated at the border, Ruthie Epstein, a legislative policy analyst at the American Civil Liberties Union said.

"They should have been offered alternatives to detention," Epstein said. "Immediately detaining these families is the absolute wrong response."

Yes, there's an app for that

The SmartLink app allows immigrants to check in with officers instead of being detained.

The monitoring program on mobile devices works Dr Scholls Passion YgKDP3i8
. The app is made by Behavioral Interventions, a subsidiary of private prison company GEO Group.

The company declined to comment on the app, deferring questions to ICE. In its marketing language, the company calls itself the "US leader for offender monitoring products."

The app works by setting up calendar events, reminders and communications between arrested immigrants and police, allowing people to self-check in. Officers are able to use the app to monitor people without watching them at all times.

It uses a photo check-in as a biometric measure to ensure the person using it is the arrested individual.

ICE can also use ankle bracelets with GPS monitoring, as well as call check-ins using voice recognition software, to catch fraudsters. The ICE spokesman said telephonic reporting was the most common method for electronic surveillance.

The Department of Homeland Security's Cole Haan Raina Grand OTK Boot II 5eKoXTiwq
in February 2015 that contractors charge 17 cents a day for telephonic monitoring and $4.41 for GPS monitoring. The US Government Accountability Office reported in 2014 () that the average cost per day for electronic surveillance was $85 a person.

In comparison, ICE's detention centers cost $133.99 a day per bed, Circus by Sam Edelman Bice Iv68o727
. The budget requested for a $1.2 billion increase for detention beds, while only asking for $57.4 million for its Alternatives to Detention program.

The program has reunited several immigrant parents with their children in South Texas already, Converse Jack Purcell® Jack Ox 10Yyci
.

"When you're detaining a parent and a kid, you're inflicting trauma on the family, that sort of trauma can reverberate for years," the ACLU's Epstein said.

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